2016 Sunset Report

OLG & DCRT Strategic Plan
2020-21 through 2024-25


Did you know?
Introduction Section 1:
Cultural Assumption
Section 2:
Ethnographic Record
Section 3:
Section 4:
Political Instrument
Section 5:
Section 6:
Art & Craft
Section 7:
Biographies of Mapmakers & Artists Bibliography

d'Abbeville, Nicolas Sanson, père (1600-1667). Founder of the French school of cartography, helped to shift the center of European map publishing from Holland to France by the end of the seventeenth century. He was also tutor to Louis XIII. Sanson's work, acclaimed for its geographical accuracy and high standard of engraving, was copied by Dutch, German, and English cartographers until well into the eighteenth century.

d'Anville, Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon (1697-1782). Famous French mapmaker who compiled over two hundred elegantly engraved maps noted for their scholarship and accuracy. He was recognized as the finest cartographer of his time and was appointed royal geographer and cartographer.

Arrowsmith, Aaron (1750-1833). Founder of a leading nineteenth-century British map house. Arrowsmith began his career as a surveyor, then established his own business. He soon earned a reputation as a compiler of large-scale maps incorporating the most up-to-date information.

de Batz, Alexandre (?-1759). Earliest known European to make drawings of Indian life in the lower Mississippi Valley. An engineer, architect, draftsman, and artist, de Batz illustrated the lifestyles and settlements of various Native American tribes including the Colapissas, Tunica, Natchez, Illinois, Fox, Attakapa, and Choctaw.

de Beauvilliers, N. Royal engineer active in the first three decades of the eighteenth century. We know nothing about his life, except that he worked in Canada and the West Indies. His style is characteristic of French military maps of the period.

Bellin, Jacques Nicolas (1703-1772). One of the greatest and most important French cartographers of the mid-eighteenth century, was appointed hydrographer to the king. His maps set a high standard of production and accuracy and were often copied by cartographers of other European countries. During his term of office he was commissioned to carry out major coastal surveys.

Boilly, Louis-Léopold (1761-1845). French painter and engraver, received the Legion of Honor in 1833 from Louis-Philippe.

Bonne, Rigobert (1727-1795). French cartographer and engineer, appointed hydrographer to the king. Although he was mainly interested in marine charts, he issued a number of other works, including maps by fellow cartographers.

Bowen, Emanuel (c. 1720-1767). An engraver, printseller, and publisher in London, produced some of the best and most attractive eighteenth-century maps. Although he earned recognition both in England and France and held the dual appointment of engraver to both George II of England and Louis XV of France, Bowen died in poverty, nearly blind.

Bowen, Thomas (fl. 1700-1763). Son of cartographer Emanuel Bowen, served as engineer for several London cartographers.

Catlin, George (1796-1872). After studying to become a lawyer, began painting miniatures in Philadelphia. In 1830 he traveled to the West and began painting North American Indians, the works for which he is best known.

Chiavez, Geronimo (1523-1574). Cartographer's son who served as cosmographer to Philip II of Spain.

Collot, Victor Georges Henri (1750-1805). French military cartographer whose work Voyage dans l'Amérique Septentrionale was published posthumously.

C&0acute;vens [Johannes] (1699-1783) & [Cornelius] Mortier (1697 1774). In 1721 founded important Dutch map publishing house that continued in business well into the middle of the nineteenth century.

Delisle, Claude (1644-1720). Celebrated history and geography teacher, tutored in geography by Nicolas Sanson, the Elder. Founder of the family cartographic business. Working in conjunction with the Academie Royale des Sciences, Delisle prepared plans and instructions for Iberville's voyage down the Mississippi.

Delisle, Guillaume (1675-1726). Known as the father of modern cartography, was educated by his father, Claude. In 1700 he began work as a compiler and publisher of maps, and for the rest of his life was a cartographic innovator and craftsman. He soon gained an international reputation, and scientists and kings (Peter the Great and Louis XIV) paid him visits. Delisle was named Premier Geographe du Roi, the first in France to be granted such a title. His chief merit was his application of scientific methods and careful examination of original sources. Unlike earlier cartographers, Delisle left blanks representing unknown areas rather than fabricating hypothetical features. He was the first to correct the longitudes of America, to discard the fallacy that California was an island, to delineate the Mississippi Valley correctly, and to introduce many new place names.

de Fer, Nicolas (1646-1720). French royal cartographer who issued more than 600 maps, including atlases, sheet maps, and large wall maps, during his lifetime.

Genin, John (1830-1895). French painter, restorer, and art teacher active in New Orleans from before the Civil War until his death. Although Genin was primarily painted portraits, he also produced landscape and historical paintings. By 1881 he was considered one of the principal New Orleans portrait painters.

de Herrera y Tordesillas, Antonio (fl. 1601-1622) was historiographer of the Indies under Phillip of Spain (1559-1625). He held the position of official historian during the reign of three Spanish monarchs and thus had access to documents he could not otherwise have secured.

Homann, Johann Baptist (1663-1724). German engraver and publisher who established himself and his family as perhaps the most famous eighteenth-century German map publishers. He built up a stock of atlas plates and sold maps at lower prices than the French or the Dutch, who had until then dominated the market. In 1715 Homann was rewarded for his service with an appointment as geographer to the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Isidore of Seville (560-636). One of the foremost encyclopediasts and historians of the early Middle Ages. For his geographical knowledge he relied heavily on the popular writings of Roman scholars and early Christian theologists.

Jefferys, Thomas (c. 1710-1771). Prolific and important mapmaker of the eighteenth century, Jefferys was a British engraver, geographer, and publisher. Between 1751 and 1768 he produced significant maps of America and the West Indies.

Kitchin, Thomas (1718-1784). One of the best and most famous eighteenth-century cartographers, served as British royal engraver, publisher, and hydrographer. He was a prolific mapmaker who worked for several English map publishers and produced maps for several periodicals and history books.

van Keulen, Gerard (1678-1727). Son of Johannes van Keulen, founder of the family business. Dutch chart and instrument makers and publishers, the van Keulen firm lasted for over two hundred years. Gerard, a talented engraver, mathematician, and publisher, was appointed hydrographer to the Dutch East India Company in 1714.

de Laët, Joannes (1583-1649). One of the cartographers who helped make Amsterdam the map publishing center of Europe during the first half of the seventeenth century.

de Lamarche, Charles Francois (1740-1817). French geographer, publisher, and globe maker. After he became Vaugondy's successor in 1792, Lamarche reissued many of Vaugondy's aliases.

Laurie, Robert (1755-1836) and James Whittle (1757-1818). Engraved and published various atlases between 1794 and 1814 in England. Their prolific output included maritime atlases and charts as well as general atlases and sheet maps.

Moll, Hermann (fl. 1678-1732). A native of Holland, Moll moved to England sometime before 1682. He set up shop in London as a bookseller and map engraver. After the turn of the century he became the premier map publisher in England and soon was an open and effective propagandist for British claims to North America. Moll's bold cartographic style included much detail, and he produced a wide range of maps from miniature to very large, decorated maps with inset plans and illustrations. Much of his work was copied by other publishers.

Münster, Sebastian (1489-1552). Originally a scholar of Hebrew, Greek, and mathematics, began to specialize in mathematical geography and cartography. He was the first European geographer to acknowledge his sources. His earliest maps, produced from woodcuts, date from around 1514. Because his two greatest works, Geographica and Cosmographica, went through over forty editions in six languages, Münster was responsible for publishing the most up-to-date geographic information about the world throughout sixteenth-century Europe.

Ortelius, Abraham (1527-1598). Began working as a map illuminator; later established himself as a mapseller. In partnership with his two sisters, Ortelius started the family business in Antwerp. In 1570 he published his greatest work, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. An immediate commercial success, this atlas was reprinted four times in its first year. Thereafter, the work was frequently reprinted, with many of the maps re-engraved and updated and new maps added. By 1612 more than forty editions had been printed in several languages.

Ptolemy, Claudius (87-150 a.d.). Called the father of geography, was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer. Little is known of him personally, other than that he lived during the reigns of Hadrian and Antonimus in or near Alexandria, Egypt. He believed the earth was a stationary sphere at the center of the universe. Ptolemy's Geographica, first published with printed maps in 1477, was the standard geographical work throughout the Middle Ages and was not superseded until the sixteenth century. Columbus owned and annotated a 1490 edition, and his belief that he could sail west and encounter the Indies was based on Ptolemy's conception of the sphericity of the earth. The first edition of Geographica to include the islands and coasts of North America was published in Strasbourg in 1513.

Robert de Vaugondy, Didier (1723-1786), was the son of Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1686-1766). The Vaugondys were descended from the Nicolas Sanson d'Abbeville family through Sanson's grandson. The Vaugondys inherited much of Sanson's cartographic material which they revised revised and corrected by adding many new place names. Gilles and Didier Robert de Vaugondy served as royal geographers of France.

Schenk, Pieter (1645-1715). Dutch publisher and engraver. With their copublishers, the Schenk family was among the most prolific and best-known publishers in eighteenth-century Amsterdam. Many of the atlases they produced were primarily reissues from earlier printing plates that the family purchased from other cartographers. Their work, though often not original, was finely presented and demonstrates the precision and elegance associated with maps and engravings produced in the period.

Seutter, Mattheus (1678-1757). Born in Augsburg, was apprenticed to Johann Homann in 1697. Seutter's maps, reflecting Homann's influence, feature heavy black engraving and large ornate cartouches teeming with flora, figures, fauna, and other decorative devices. He became imperial geographer to Emperor Charles VI.

Speed, John (1552-1629). British antiquarian, amateur historian, and cartographer who was a tailor for the first half century of his life until he found a patron to underwrite his passion for mapping. His best-known works are county maps of Great Britain.

Tirion, Isaak (c. 1705-1769). Successful Dutch mapmaker who produced extensive volumes of Dutch town plans as well as a number of atlases usually based on the work of Guillaume Delisle.

Waldseemüller, Martin (1470-1521). Priest-professor in the duchy of Lorraine, now in northeast France, Waldseemüller is credited with naming the New World America. In the introduction to his 1507 world map, Waldseemüller wrote about the new lands described by Amerigo Vespucci and proposed that the new continent be named for the alleged discoverer. Waldseemüller then printed the word America in the region of South America on two maps made to accompany this work.

de Woiseri, John L. Bóqueta. Engraver, surveyor, engineer, de Woiseri was an itinerant artist working in New Orleans from 1803 to 1804.

Wyld James, the Elder (1790-1836), and his son James Wyld, the Younger (1812-1887), were successful London map publishers. Both, in turn, served as royal geographer.